Macrocytic anemia can be due to several causes. The first is a deficiency in vitamin B12 or folate, both important ingredients in RBC production.
Macrocytic anemia is an anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is larger than normal
Macrocytic Anemia symptoms and signs are attributable to the underlying condition that caused the anemia or to the anemia itself, including dyspnea, headache, fatigue, sore tongue, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms.
Other symptoms include certain manifestations including glossitis, tachycardia, flow murmurs, splenomegaly, conjunctival pallor, and other neurological disorders such as ataxia, loss of deep tendon reflexes, particularly ankle reflex, loss of posterior column sensations, and confabulation.
RBCs in macrocytic Anemia appear larger than normal cells on a peripheral blood smear. The MCV (mean cell volume) is typically greater than 100 fL (normal: about 90 fL). When macrocytic changes are evident in the RBCs of the bone marrow as well as in the peripheral blood, the anemia is termed megaloblastic anemia.
Cause of Macrocytic anemia
Vitamin B12 is essential for normal nervous system function and blood cell production. The main sources of vitamin B12 include meat, eggs, and dairy products. For vitamin B12 to be absorbed by the body, it must bind to intrinsic factor, a protein secreted by cells in the stomach.